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New Research: Children’s Perception and Traffic Danger

Thursday, January 6th, 2011 by Mick Allan

twenty's_plenty

Cyclorama wholeheartedly supports the 20’s Plenty for Us campaign whose aim is to persuade local authorities across the UK to reduce speed limits where people live. Recent research on vision has found that primary age children cannot accurately see, or judge the speed of, vehicles travelling above 20 mph. This is strong evidence that 20 mph limits where people live are needed to protect children from road danger caused by age-related inability to correctly register faster traffic.

A new study by vision scientists at Royal Holloway, University of London has measured children’s ability to detect approaching cars in a road crossing scenario. At vehicle speeds faster than 20 mph, primary school age children (6-11 years) may not be able to tell that a car is approaching. This strongly supports arguments for implementing and enforcing 20 mph speed restrictions in areas with child pedestrians such as residential streets.

The study, which is in press for the international journal Psychological Science, outlines how a speed illusion can mean that all pedestrians, and/or drivers at junctions, can under-estimate the speed of faster vehicles and may, in some cases, fail to see them at all. Researchers measured the perceptual acuity of over 100 children in primary schools and calculated the approach speed that they could reliably detect. Adult pedestrians can make accurate judgments for vehicles travelling up to 50 mph, but primary school age children become unreliable once the approach speed goes above 20 mph.

Professor John Wann who led the research suggests “This is not a matter of children not paying attention, but a problem related to low-level visual detection mechanisms, so even when children are paying very close attention they may fail to detect a fast approaching vehicle.”

Professor Wann stresses that the simplest solution lies in traffic regulation “These findings provide strong evidence that children may make risky crossing judgements when vehicles are travelling at 30 or 40 mph. In addition, the vehicles that they are more likely to step in front of are the faster vehicles that are more likely to result in a fatality. Travelling 1 mile though a residential area at 20 mph vs. 30 mph will only add 60 seconds to journey time. We encourage drivers to take a minute and save a child’s life”.

Anna Semlyen, Campaign Manager for 20’s Plenty for Us said “We cannot address child road safety by simply teaching them to pay more attention. Child pedestrians can’t judge approach speeds as well as adults. It’s simplistic to blame children and suggest they “run out”, without checking. But this study suggests it’s drivers going too fast that create errors, as it is then impossible for children to make correct judgments. It’s up to adult society to protect families through 20 mph limits where people live and for drivers to obey the signs.”

This study was part of a larger project sponsored by the ESRC, one of the UK research councils, in order to understand the perceptual factors than can lead to pedestrian accidents. The research group has recently published brain imaging research in the Proceedings of the Royal Society to that show some of the key components for detecting collision events lie at the brain-stem level, which is a low-level early detection system.

20’s Plenty for Us welcomes comment and feedback, so please contact them if you would like any further information. www.20splentyforus.org.uk

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6 Responses to “New Research: Children’s Perception and Traffic Danger”

  1. Kim says:

    Lowing the speed limit is only part of the solution, once you have done that the real battle is to get the police to enforce it. Currently the police are unwilling to rigorously enforce 30mph speed limits, so getting them to prosecute drivers travelling at 30mph in a 20 mph limit is a real problem. We need to find a way of making speeding as socially unacceptable as drink driving.

  2. icyclelondon says:

    Unfortunately the problems of enforcing speed controls are a worldwide problem. The Dutch have solved this by making traffic calming measures compulsory to new housing developments and City improvements, since the 1960’s.
    Both the Dutch and the Danish have a mandatory speed limit in residential areas of 20 MPH; enforced by driving bans and the publication of offenders details in both their local and national press.
    The Dutch also have timed vehicle bans on residential housing projects between certain hours also, mostly at School commuting periods.

  3. Mick Allan says:

    Anyone familiar with the US State of New Jersey will know that it’s police enthusiasm which makes their 15(!)mph school zones such a success. The police are so vigilant and penalties so tough that everyone drives through them closer to 10mph. If the most car-centric nation on the planet can summon up the political will to do it why can’t we?

  4. Mick Allan says:

    We have a few 20’s Plenty frame stickers to give away – subject to availablity and all that.

    email admin at cyclorama.net

    Mick

  5. Lars Barfred says:

    @icyclelondon I am affraid the Dutch may have, we (the danes) don´t. But it sounds great , unfortunately 30 mph/50kmh is the standard in DK, And unless accident statistics prove otherwise, most streets can very difficult for the city to lower to 25 og 20 mph. The police believe traffic is for cars, and car mobility trumps everything else, its not a municipality decission.

  6. Simon Geller says:

    There’s an elephant in the room here – the police are there to enforce the laws, not to make them. If society decides it wants 20mph streets it’s up to the police to work out ways of enforcing that.